Strategies for Healthy Weight Loss: From Vitamin C to the Glycemic Response
Carol S. Johnston, PhD, FACN
Department of Nutrition, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona
Address reprint requests to: Carol S. Johnston, PhD, FACN, Department of Nutrition, Arizona State University East, 7001 E. Williams Field Rd., Mesa, AZ 85212.
25 July 2007
America is experiencing a major obesity epidemic. The ramifications of this epidemic are immense since obesity is associated with chronic metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and heart disease. Reduced physical activity and/or increased energy intakes are important factors in this epidemic.
Additionally, a genetic susceptibility to obesity is associated with gene polymorphisms* (*polymorphisms - many forms of drastic shape and genetic content changes), affecting biochemical pathways that regulate fat oxidation, energy expenditure, or energy intake.
However, these pathways are also impacted by specific foods and nutrients.
Vitamin C status is inversely related to body mass. Individuals with adequate vitamin C status oxidize 30% more fat during a moderate exercise period than individuals with low vitamin C status; thus, vitamin C depleted individuals may be more resistant to fat mass loss.
Food choices can impact post-meal satiety* (*satiety - the state of being satisfactorily full and unable to take on more) and hunger. High-protein foods promote postprandial ( “after meal“) thermogenesis (“heat production in bodies“) and greater satiety as compared to high-carbohydrate, low-fat foods; thus, diet regimens high in protein foods may improve diet compliance and diet effectiveness.
Vinegar and peanut ingestion can reduce the glycemic effect of a meal, a phenomenon that has been related to satiety and reduced food consumption. Thus, the effectiveness of regular exercise and a prudent diet for weight loss may be enhanced by attention to specific diet details.